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Chile is one of the top ten wine-producing countries in the world. The Spanish created the first vineyards in Chile in the mid-16th century. This wine history was greatly expanded in the 19th century when phylloxera hit the French wine country hard, many French winemakers left France and took their grape varieties and knowledge to Chile. The country has 2,700 miles of coastline and the vineyards are protected by a coastal mountain range that keeps the vineyards from experiencing any real extreme maritime weather. Carmenere is the signature wine of Chile, although it is a grape variety that is indigenous to the Bordeaux region of France. Some of the top wine varieties of Chile include cabernet sauvignon, chardonnay, sauvignon blanc, bordeaux blends, carménère, syrah, and pinot noir.